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A List of 
Phyla, Classes, and Orders 

Prepared for 
Section F 

American Association for the Advancement 
of Science 


• P42 

Durham, North Carolina 


A List of 
Phyla, Classes, and Orders 


Prepared for 

Section F 

American Association for the Advancement 
of Science 

Durham, North Carolina 


American zoological writers who have published books or scientific papers during the 
past decade show little uniformity in their reference to larger groups of animals. Of 
course no zoologist wishes to be limited in the choice of names which seem to be most 
appropriate; no one wishes to have imposed on him terms which he is ordered to use; and 
none desires to have nomeclature become fixed and inflexible. Of all the rewards that 
Science gives to her retainers those most prized and enjoyed are independence and the 
right to change old dogmas as soon as the discovery of new truths makes them illogical. 
Yet because the species of animals now number several hundreds of thousands, the 
sorting of species into groups must necessarily be continually more accurate and critical. 
Furthermore, there are men who through ignorance, inertia, or bigotry take little or no 
cognizance of the progress of current scientific evidence and opinion. For example, cer- 
tain writers of recent textbooks use such old terms as Annulata and Anura when the 
most thoughtful and competent students of annelids and amphibians agree that Annelida 
and Salientia are to be preferred. Dr. R. E. Snodgrass, who has recently studied the 
anatomy of onychophorans in detail, is convinced that these animals cannot be called 
arthropods because their muscular systems have quite different relations to nervous 
structures from those which obtain in arthropods. Dr. J. P. Moore does not believe that 
onychophorans may be included among amielids. There seems to be no alternative but 
to set off Onychophora as a group by itself. 

Those who know animals and their classifications in detail perhaps may enjoy using 
various names for the same group and delight in thus displaying their technical knowledge, 
but a novice who refers to two or three textbooks and finds the same group called by 
two or three names is greatly confused. In an attempt to bring about greater uniformity 
and more careful selection in the use of zoological group names the writer was authorized 
to form an intormal committee and to prepare a list of phyla, classes, and orders of 
animals which would represent current good usage. This action was taken by Section F 
of the American Association for the Advancement of Science at the Boston Meeting ; 
December, 1933. 

Since then many persons who appeared to be interested have been consulted. The 
following gave advice in connection with the groups mentioned : 

Invertebrata : A. H. Clark, B. G. Chitwood, Roy Miner, L. E. Noland, H. S. Pratt, 
Waldo Schmitt, H. J. Van Cleave. 

Protozoa : L. E. Noland, and forty-odd protozoologists to whom he sent a question- 

Porifera : //. V. Wilson, 

Coelenterata : Elizabeth Dekhmann (except Zoantharia). 

Aschelminthes : B. G. Chitwood, M. C. Hall. 

Platyhehranthes : E. W. Price; Cestoda : G. R. La Rue; Nemertea : W. R. Coe. 

Nemathelminthes : B. G. Chitwood, G. Steiner, Acanthoccphala : //. /. Van Cleave. 

Bryozoa : R. S. Sassier, R. C. Osburn. 

Echinodermata : A. H. Clark, H. L. Clark, E. Kirk. 

Brachiopoda : G. A. Cooper. 

Enteropneusta : W. E. Ritter. 

Annelida : J. P. Moore, A. L. Tread well. 

Arthropoda : H. E. Ewing, R. E. Snodgrass. 

Crustacea: E. A. Birge, Norma C. Furtos, H. A. Pilsbry, Mary J. Rathbun. Waldo 
Schmitt, J. P. Visscher, C. B. Wilson. 


Pycnogonidia : L. J. Cole; Arachiiida : //. £. Eiving. 

Insecta : C. L. Kennedy, Z. P. Mctcalj. J. G. Needham, H. G. Barber, H. E. Ewing. 

Mollusca : P. Bartsch, H. Rehder. 

Chordata : C. W. Gilmorc, \V. K. Gregory. 

Tunicata : IV. E. Ritter, W. G. Van Name. 

Pisces : W. K. Gregory, C. L. Hubbs, G. S. Myers. 

Amphibia : Helen T. Gaige, G. K. Noble. 

Reptilia : Helen T. Gaige, G. K. Noble. 

Aves : A. Wetmore. 

Mammalia : L. R. Dice, C. W. Gilmore, Remington Kellogg. 

Those whose names appear in italics furnished essentially the terms that appear in the 
following pages. While the writer gladly acknowledges the obligation to those persons 
and appreciates greatly the work they did, they are not to be held responsible for the 
published list. The differences of opinion among zoologists in the United States were 
found to be so great that there was little hope of agreement and the editor finally did 
what seemed to him best. 

Perhaps forty per cent of those consulted strongly urged the use of uniform endings 
for the larger groups of animals. The difficulty encountered in this connection was that 
protozoologists, helminthologists. conchologists, ornitholgists, etc. had already moved 
more or less in the direction of uniformity and each group of specialists had a tendency 
to adopt a different system. After long consideration the editor has used the system in 
vogue among protozoologists and students of some other groups, as it seemed to be at 
present more generally in use than any other. The endings are as follows : Phylum and 
Subphylum, — a; Class, — ea; Subclass, — ia ; Order, — ida ; Suborder, — ina. In presenting 
this report to Section F it is not supposed that uniform endings shall be adopted as official, 
or even recommended. The zoological world had perhaps best be left to make its own 
choice. In the list the names in the first column represent what the editor after con- 
sultation believes to be best current usage; those in the second column are what a few 
zoologists would like to see used, but perhaps in presenting these the editor is "a hundred 
years ahead of his time." In any attempt to attain uniformity difficulties arise. For 
example, Dr. Steiner points out that two names suggested as suborders under Nematoda 
are objectionable because identical names already have good standing as genera in the 
same group (Rhabditina Cobb 1922, Chromadorina Filipjev 1926). 

Another matter about which there is wide disagreement is whether there should be 
few or many groups — the old controversy between "lumpers" and "splitters." Shall there 
be ten or thirty phyla, or orders of insects ? The position has been taken that it is more 
truthful, and therefore more scientific, to present many groups ; otherwise it is necessary 
to compromise to the extent of grouping things together which have remote or insig- 
nificant relationships. To the objection that students cannot be expected to master such 
a long list of technical jargon there is only one answer. It is better to tell students part 
of the truth frankly than to falsely affirm that they are learning a complete and simple 
story. Biology is not always simple and clear. It therefore seems proper to say to a 
student in an elementary course, "of the thirty-odd phyla of animals, or orders of insects, 
only ten or a dozen which are of particular biological significance to you will be studied," 
rather than, "for convenience and simplicity all animals, or all insects, are presented 
under ten phyla, or orders, which may be easily remembered." Science is truth. 
Classification must be expected to grow more complex as knowledge increases and 
becomes more critical. 

In most groups the authors' names and the dates following correctly indicate when a 
particular scientific name was given to a group, but these should be used with caution 
for in cases where no specialist could be found to furnish accurate information (birds, 
fishes, etc.), the editor browsed through systematic works and found such information, 


some of which later proved to be incorrect. For example, some references credited to 

Lamarck by various writers are for vernacular names which should have no scientific 

standing as scientific names. The following groups have been carefully corrected by 

specialists and are believed to be reliable for authors and dates : Protozoa, Porifera, 

Coelenterata (except Zoantharia), Platyhelminthes, Nemertea, Acanthocephala, Nematoda, 

Bryozoa, Brachiopoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Arachnida, Crustacea, Insecta, Tuni- 

cata, Amphibia, Reptilia, and Mammalia ; other groups may not be. 

A. S. Pearse, Editor. 
Duke University, June 1, 1936. 


As there is continual demand for this list, which has been out of print for several 
years, it seems desirable to publish a second edition. A few changes have been made 
and the following persons made suggestions for the revision. A. H. Clark suggested 
the term Hemizoa and other general changes. Grateful acknowledgment is made to 
G. W. Wharton who corrected the proofs for the list. An excellent discussion of various 
modern systems of classification will be found in Libbie H. Hyman's "The Invertebrates : 
Protozoa through Ctenophora," 1940:22-43. 

Invertebrata : A. H. Clark, C. G. Bookhout; Protozoa: R. R. Kudo; Porifera: M. W. 

de Laubenfels ; Nemertea : W. R. Coe ; Acanthocephala : H. J. Van Cleave ; 

Bryozoa: R. C. Osburn; Annelida: Grace E. Pickford; Arthropoda : R. E. Snod- 

grass ; Pycnogonida : Joel W. Hedgpeth ; Arachnida: Elizabeth B. Bryant; 

Acarina: G. W. Wharton; Myriapoda: Nelle B. Causey; Crustacea: Fenner A. 

Chace; Insecta: C. F. W. Muesebeck and colleagues; Tunicata: W. G. Van Name; 

Vertebrata : E. C. Horn, I. E. Gray. 

T^.TT. . r- , .,^.^ A. S. Pearse, Editor. 

Duke University, September 1, 1946. 


The second edition of this list was so full of errors that it was never sent to the 
general biological public. In the revision for this third edition the list of groups that 
has "uniform" endings has been omitted. The following persons have furnished informa- 
tion for the groups indicated : Invertebrata, Libbie H. Hyman and M. W. de Laubenfels ; 
Protozoa, R. R. Kudo; Porifera, M. W. de Laubenfels; Platyhelminthes, Libbie H. 
Hyman and H. W. Manter ; Cestoda, Robt. P. Dollfus; Nemertea, Libbie H. Hyman 
and Arthur G. Humes ; Brachiopoda, Preston E. Cloud, Jr. ; Annelida, Olga Hartman and 
Grace E. Pickford ; Crustacea, Fenner A. Chace, Jr. ; Arachnida, Alexander Petrun- 
kevitch ; Acari, G. W. Wharton ; Pycnogonida, Joel W. Hedgpeth ; Myriapoda, Nelle B. 
Causey; Insecta, F. M. Carpenter and Charles L. Remington; Mollusca, H. A. Rehder; 
Tunicata, W. G. Van Name and A. G. Huntsman; Fishes, Carl H. Hubbs; Amphibia 
and Reptilia, Grace L. Orton; Aves, Ernst Mayr and Alexander Wetmore. For trema- 
todes Dawes (1946) "the Trematoda" has been followed, for fishes, amphibians, and rep- 
tiles the classification in Romer's (1945) "Vertebrate Paleontology" has been used, and 
for mammals that in Simpson's (1945) "The Principles of Classification and a Classifica- 
tions of Mammals" has been followed. 

July 1, 1948. ■ ■ ' 


In preparation of this edition helpful suggestions have been received from Austin H. 

Clark, Herbert Friedmann, J. B. S. Haldane, Harald A. Rehder, Curtis W. Sabrosky, 

and Alexander Wetmore. 

October 30, 1949. 


A List of Phyla, Classes, and Orders 

Extinct groups are indicated by an asterisk (*) 

Kingdom Animalia Linnaeus 1758 
Subkingdom Protozoa Goldfus 1817 
Phylum Protozoa Goldfus 1817 
Subphylum Plasmodroma Doflein 1901 
Class Mastigophora Diesing 1865 
Subclass Phytomastigina Doflein 1916 
Order Chysomonadina Stein 1878 

Suborder Euchrysomonadina Pascher 1913 
Suborder Rhizochrysidina Pascher 1913 
Suborder Chrysocapsina Pascher 1913 
Order Cryptomonadina Stein 1878 

Suborder Eucryptomonadina Pascher 1913 
Suborder Phoecapsina Pascher 1913 
Order Phytomonadina Blochmann 1895 
Order Euglenoidina Butschli 1884 
Order Chloromonadina Klebs 1892 
Order Dinoflagellata Butschli 1885 
Suborder Porocentrinea Poche 1913 
Suborder Peridiniinea Poche 1913 
Suborder Cystoflagellata Haeckel 1873 
Subclass Zoomastigina Doflein 1916 
Order Rhizomastigina Biitschli 1883 
Order Protomonadina Blochmann 1895 
Order Polymastigina Blochmann 1895 
Suborder Monomonadina Kudo 1939 
Suborder Diplomonadina Kudo 1939 
Suborder Polymonadina Kudo 1939 
Order Hypermastigina Grassi 1911 
Class Sarcodina Hertwig & Lesser 1874 
Subclass Rhizopoda von Siebold 1845 
Order Proteomyxa Lankester 1885 
Order Mycetozoa de Bary 1859 
Suborder Eumycetozoa Zopf 1884 
Suborder Sorophora Zopf 1887 
Order Amoebina Ehrenberg 1830 
Order Testacea Schultze 1854 
Order Foraminifera D'Orbigny 1826 
Subclass Actinopoda Calkins 1909 
Order Heliozoa Haeckel 1866 
Order Radiolaria J. Miiller 1858 
Class Sporozoa Leuckart 1879 
Subclass Telosporidia Schaudinn 1900 
Order Gregarinida Lankester 1866 
Suborder Eugregarinaria Doflein 1901 
Suborder Schizogregarinaria Leger 1900 
Order Coccidia Leuckart 1879 
Suborder Eimeridea Leger 1911 


Suborder Adeleidea Leger 1911 
Order Haemosporidia Danilewsky 1886 
Subclass Acnidosporidia Cepede 1911 
Order Sarcosporidia Balbiani 1882 
Order Haplosporidia Caullery & Mesnil 1899 
Subclass Cnidosporidia Doflein 1901 
Order Myxosporidia Biitschli 1881 
Suborder Eurysporea Kudo 1920 
Suborder Sphaerosporea Kudo 1920 
Suborder Platysporea Kudo 1920 
Order Actinoniyxidia Stolg 1899 
Order Microsporidia Balbiani 1883 

Suborder Monocnidea Leger & Hesse 1922 
Suborder Dicnidea Leger & Hesse 1922 
Order Helicosporidia Kudo 1931 
Subphylum Ciliophora Doflein 1901 
Class Ciliata Perty 1852 
Subclass Protociliata Metcalf 1918 
Subclass Euciliata Metcalf 1918 
Order Holotricha Stein 1859 

Suborder Astomata Schwiakoff 1896 
Suborder Gymnostomata Biitschli 1889 
Suborder Trichostoniata Biitschli 1889 
Suborder Hymenostomata Hickson 1903 
Suborder Thigmotricha Chatton & Lwoff 1926 
Suborder Apostomea Qiatton & Lwoff 1935 
Order Spirotricha Biitschli 1889 
Suborder Heterotricha Stein 1859 
Suborder Oligotricha Biitschli 1887 
Suborder Ctenostomata Kahl 1932 
Suborder Hypotricha Stein 1859 
Order Chonotricha Wallengren 1895 
Order Peritricha Stein 1859 
Suborder Sessilia Kahl 1935 
Suborder Mobilia Kahl 1935 
Class Suctoria Claparede & Lachmann 1858 
Subkingdom Mesozoa van Beneden 1877 
Subkingdom Parazoa Sollas 1884 
Phylum Porifera Grant 1835 
Class Calcispongiae Schmidt 1862 
Order Asconosa de Laubenfels 1936 
Order Syconosa de Laubenfels 1936 
Class Hyalospongiae Vosmaer 1885 
Order Hexasterophora Schuize 1899 
Order Amphidiscophora Schuize 1899 
Class Desmospongiae Sollas 1875 
Order Carnosa Carter 1875 
Order Choristida Sollas 1888 
Order Epipolasida Sollas 1888 
Order Hadromerina Topsent 1898 
Order Poecilosclerina Topsent 1898 
Order Haplosclerina Topsent 1898 


Order Keratosa Grant 1861 
Phylum *Archaeocyatha Borneniann 1884 
Subkingdom Metazoa Haeckel 1877 
Branch Enterozoa Lankcster 1878 
Superseries Radiata Schimkewitsch 1891 
Phylum Coelenterata Leuckart 1848 
Class Hydrozoa Huxley 1857 
Order Hydroida Huxley 1857 
Order Trachylina Haeckel 1877 
Order Milleporina Hickson 1899 
Order Stylasterina Hickson 1899 
Order Siphonophora Esclischoltz 1829 
Suborder Calycophorae Leuckart 1854 
Suborder Rhizophysaliae Chun 1882 
Suborder Chondrophorae Chamisso & Eysenhard 1821 
Order *Graptolitoidea Lapworth 1873 

Suborder *Monoprionidea Hopkinson 1875 
Suborder *Diprionidea Hopkinson 1875 
Suborder *Retiolithidea Lapworth 1873 
Class Scyphozoa Grobben 1910 

Order Lucernariidea Johnston 1847 
Order Charybdeidea Gegenbaur 1856 
Order Corona Vanhoffen 1892 
Order Semaeostonieae L. Agassiz 1862 
Order Rhizostomeae Cuvier 1799 
Class *Stromatoporoidea Nicholson & Murie 1878 
Class Anthozoa Ehrenberg 1834 
Subclass Alcyonaria Mihie-Edwards & Haime 1857 
Order Stolonifera Hickson 1883 
Order Telestacea Hickson 1930 
Order Alcyonacea Verrill 1866 
Order Gorgonacea Verrill 1866 

Suborder Scleraxonia Wright & Struder 1889 
Suborder Holaxonia Wright & Struder 1889 
Order Coenothecalia Bourne 1900 
Order Pennatulacea Verrill 1866 
Subclass Zoantharia Blainville 1830 
Order Cerianthidea M.-Edw. & Haime 1857 
Order Antipitharia Dana 1846 
Order Zoanthidea Dana 1846 
Order Edwardsiidea R. Hertwig 1888 
Order Proactiniae McMurrich 1892 
Order Actinaria McMurrich 1829 

Suborder Ptychodaetiaria Stephenson 1921 
Suborder Coralliomorpharia Carlgren 1936 
Suborder Actiniaria Carlgren 1925 
Order Madreporaria Linnaeus 1748 

Suborder Aporosa M.-Edw. & Haime 1857 
Suborder Fungacea M.-Edw. & Haime 1857 
Suborder Perforata M.-Edw. & Haime 1857 
Phylum Ctenophorae Eschscholtz 1829 
Qass Tentaculata Wagner 1834 


Order Cydippidea Lesson 1843 

Order Lobata Eschscholtz 1829 

Order Cestoidea Lesson 1843 

Order Platyctenea Bourne 1900 
Class Nuda Bourne 190O 

Order Beroidea Eschscholtz 1829 
Subbranch Triploblastica Lankester 1900 
Superseries Bilateria Schimkewitsch 1891 
Series Enterocoela Lankester 1876 
Subseries Acoelomata Schimkewitsch 1891 
Phylum Platyhelminthes Gegenbaur 1859 
Class Turbellaria Ehrenberg 1831 

Order Acoela Uljanin 1870 

Order Rhabdocoela Ehrenberg 1831 

Suborder Temnocephalida Haswell 1888 

Order Alloiocoela Graff 1882 (Alloeocoela Spengel 1884) 

Order Tricladida (Lang 1881) 

Order Polycladida (Lang 1881) Graff 1885 
Class Trematoda Rudolphi 1808 
Subclass Monogenea Carus 1863 

Order Monopisthocotylea Odhner 1912 

Order Polyopisthocotylea Odhner 1912 
Subclass Aspidogastrea (Burmeister 1856) Monticelli 1892 
Subclass Digenea Carus 1863 

Order Gasterostoma Odhner 1905 

Order Prosostomata Odhner 1905 
Class Cestoidea Rudolphi 1808 
Subclass Cestodaria Monticelli 1892 

Order Amphilinidea Poche 1922 

Order Gyrocotylidea Benham 1901 
Subclass Cestoda van Beneden 1848 

Order Pseudophyllidea Carus 1863 

Order Cyclophyllidea Braun 1900 

Order Tetraphyllidea Braun 1900 

Order Trypanorhyncha Diesing 1863 

Order Heterophyllidea Southwell 1925 
Phylum Nemertea Delle Chiaje 1841 
Class Anopla Schultze 1852 

Order Paleonemertea Hubrecht 1879 

Order Heteronemertea Burger 1892 
Qass Enopla Schultze 1852 

Order Hoplonemertea Hubrecht 1879 
Suborder Monostilifera Brinkmann 1917 
Suborder Polystilifera Brinkmann 1917 

Order Bellonemertea Coe 1905 
Phylum Acanthocephala Rudolphi 1808 
Class Eoacanthocephala Van Cleave 1936 

Order Gyracanthocephala Van Cleave 1936 

Order Neoacanthocephala Van Cleave 1936 
Class Metacanthocephala Van Cleave 1948 

Order Palaeacanthocephala Meyer 1931 

Order Archiacanthocephala Meyer 1931 


Subseries Pseudocoelomata Schimkewtsch 1891 
Superphylum Aschelminthes Grobben 1909 
Phylum Rotatoria Ehrenberg 1838 
Class Seisonidea Wesenberg-Lund 1899 
Class Bdelloidea Hudson & Gosse 1889 
Class Monogononta Ehrenberg 1832 
Order Ploima Hudson & Gosse 1889 
Order Flosculariacea Harring 1913 
Order Collothecacea Harring 1913 
Phylum Gastrotricha Metchnikof 1864 
Order Macrodasyoidea Remane 1926 
Order Chaetonotoidea Remane 1926 
Phylum Echinodera Zehnka 1928 (Kinorhyncha Reinhard 1887) 
Phylum Nematomorpha Vejovsky 1866 
Class Gordididea Orthepp 1924 
Class Nectonematoidea Rauther 1930 
Phylum Nematoidea Rudolphi 1808 

Class Phasmidia Qiitwood & Chitwood 1933 
Order Rhabditida Chitwood 1933 
Suborder Rhabditata Chitwood 1933 
Suborder Ascaridata Skrjabin 1915 
Suborder Strongylata Railliet & Henry 1913 
Order Spirurida Chitwood 1933 

Suborder Spirurata Railhet & Henry 1913 
Suborder Camallanta Chitwood 1936 
Class Aphasmidia Chitwood & Chitwood 1933 
Order Enoplata Chitwood 1933 
Suborder Enoplata Filipjev 1929 
Suborder Dorylaimata Chitwood 1933 
Suborder Dioctophymata Skrjabin 1923 
Order Chromadorida Chitwood 1933 
Suborder Monohysterata FiHpjev 1929 
Suborder Desmoscolecata Filipjev 1929 
Suborder Chromadorata Filipjev 1929 
Phylum Tardigrada Spallanzani 1726 
Class Heterotardigrada Marcus 1927 
Order Arthrotardigrada Marcus 1927 
Order Echiniscoidea Richters 1926 
Class Eutardigrada Richters 1926 
Subseries Eucoelomata Schimkewitsch 1891 
Phylum Chaetognatha Leuckart 1854 
Phylum Entoprocta Nitsche 1870 
Phylum Bryozoa Ehrenberg 1831 
Class Gymnolaemata Allman 1856 
Order Cyclostomata Busk 1852 
Suborder Tubipora Hagenow 1851 
Suborder Cerioporina Hagenow 1851 
Suborder Ceramoporoidea Bassler 1913 
Suborder Hedrelloidea Bassler 1934 
Order Trepostomata Ulrich 1883 
Order Cryptostomata Vine 1883 
Order Ctenostoma Busk 1852 


Order Cyclostomata Busk 1852 
Suborder Anasca Levinsen 1909 
Suborder Ascophora Levinsen 1909 
Class Phylactolaemata Allman 1856 
Phylum Brachiopoda Cuvier 1802 
Class Inarticulata Huxley 1869 (Gastrocaulia Thompson 1927) 
Order Atremata Beecher 1891 
Order Neotremata Beecher 1891 
Class Articulata Huxley 1869 

Order *Paleotremata Thompson 1927 
Order Protremata Beecher 1891 
Order Telotremata Beecher 1891 
Phylum Phoronidea E. Shultz 1903 (Pygocaulia Thompson 1927) 
Phylum Pogonophora Johansson 1937 
Phylum Pterobranchia Lankester 1877 
Phylum Enteropneusta Gegenbaur 1870 

Class Balanoglossida Delle Chiaje 1820 
Phylum Linguatula Frolich 1789 
Phylum Echinodermata Laske 1778 
Subphylum Pelmatozoa Leuckart 1848 
Class *Cystoidea von Buch 1844 
Order *Amphoridea Haeckel 1896 
Order *Rhombifera Zittel 1879 
Order *Diploporita Zittel 1879 
Order *Aporita Zittel 1879 
Order *Edrioasteroida Billings 1858 
Class *Blastoidea Say 1925 

Order *Protoblastoida Bather 1899 
Order *Eublastoida Bather 1899 
Class Crinoidea Miller 1921 

Order *Camerata Wachsmuth & Springer 1885 
Order *Adunata Bather 1899 
Order Flexibilia Zittel 1879 

Suborder *Sagenocrinida Springer 1926 
Suborder *Taxocrinida Springer 1926 
Order *Inadunata Wachsmuth & Springer 1885 

Suborder *Larviformia Wachsmuth & Springer 1885 
Suborder *Fistulata Wachsmuth & Springer 1885 
Order Articulata Aliller 1821 

Suborder Bourgueticrinida H. L. Clark 1939 
Suborder Pentacrinida Claus 1868 
Suborder Holopida Haeckel 1896 
Order Comatulida (Parks 1891) A. H. Clark 1908 
Suborder Oligophreata A. H. Clark 1908 
Suborder Macrophreata A. H. Clark 1908 
Subphylum Asterozoa Leuckart 1848 
Class Asteroidea Burmeister 1837 
Order Phanerozonea Sladen 1889 
Order Spinulosa Perrier 1894 
Order Forcipulata Perrier 1894 
Suborder Brisingina Fisher 1928 
Suborder Asteriadina Fisher 1928 


Class Ophiuroidea Norman 1865 
Subclass *Aegophiuricia Matsumoto 1915 
Order *Lysoi)hiiirida Matsumoto 1913 
Subclass Myophiurida Matsumoto 1915 
Order *Opbiocystiida H. L. Clark 1939 
Order *Aganasterida H. L. Clark 1939 
Order Phrynophiurida Matsumoto 1915 
Order Laemophiurida Matsumoto 1915 
Order Gnathophiurida Matsumoto 1915 
Order Chilophiurida Matsumoto 1915 
Subphylum Echinozoa Leuckart 1848 
Class Echinoidea Bronn 1860 
Order *Bothriocidaroida Duncan 1889 
Order Cidaroida Duncan 1889 
Order Centrechinoida Jackson 1912 
Suborder Aulodonta Jackson 1912 
Suborder Stirodonta Jackson 1912 
Suborder Camerodonta Jackson 1912 
Order Exocycloida Jackson 1912 
Suborder Holectypina Gregory 1900 
Suborder Echinoneina Hawkins 1925 
Suborder Clypeastrina Gregory 1900 
Suborder Nucleolitina Hawkins 1925 
Suborder Cassidulina Hawkins 1925 
Suborder Urechinina H. L. Clark 1925 
Suborder Spatangina Jackson 1912 
Order Perischoechinoida Jackson 1912 
Order Echinocystoida Jackson 1912 
Order Perichoechinoida Jackson 1912 
Class Holothurioidea Semper 1868 
Order Dendrochirota MacBride 1909 
Order Elasipoda Theele 1882 
Order Aspidochirota MacBride 1909 
Order Molpadonia Ekman 1925 
Order Apoda Lanipert 1885 
Phylum Priapuloidea Sedgwick 1898 
Phylum Annelida Lamarck 1809 
Class Archiannelida Hatschek 1893 
Class Polychaeta Grube 1850 
Order Errantia Audouin & Milne-Edwards 1832 
Order Sedentaria Lamarck 1818 
Order Aplacophora von Ihreing (see page 17) 1878 
Order *Miskoa Walcott 1911 
Class Myzostoma Graff 1884 
Class Oligochaeta Grube 1850 
Order Plesiopora plesiotheca Michaelsen 1930 
Order Plesiopora prosotheca Michaelsen 1930 
Order Prosopora Michaelsen 1930 
Order Opisthopora Michaelsen 1930 
Class Hirudinea Lamarck 1818 

Order Rhynchobdellida Blanchard 1887 
Order Gnathobdellida Vaillant 1890 


Order Pharyngobdellida Johansson 1913 
Phylum Poeobioidea Fisher 1946 
Phylum Echiuroidea Sedgwick 1898 
Class Echiurida Savigny 1817 
Order Echiuroinea Bock 1942 
Order Xenopneusta Fisher 1946 
Order Heteromyota Fisher 1946 
Class Saccosomatida Fisher 1946 
Phylum Sipunculoidea Sedgwick 1898 
Phylum Onychophora Grube 1851 
Phylum Arthropoda Siebold & Stannius 1845 
Subphylum *Trilobita Schlotheim 1820 
Class *Hypoparia Beecher 1897 
Class *Opisthoparia Beecher 1897 
Class *Proparia Beecher 1897 
Subphylum Chelicerata Dahl 1913 
Class Merostomata Woodward 1878 
Order *Eurypterida Woodward 1878 
Order *Synxiphosura Packard 1885 
Order Xiphosura Latreille 1806 
Class Pycnogonida Latreille 1804 
Order Colossendeomorpha Cole 1905 
Order Nymphonomorpha Pocock 1904 
Order Ascorhynchomorpha Pocock 1904 
Order Pycnogonomorpha Pocock 1904 
Class Arachnida Lamarck 1815 
Subclass Latigastra Petrunkevitch 1946 
Order Scorpiones Latreille 1810 
Order Pseudoscorpiones Latreille 1810 
Order Opiliones Sundevall 1833 
Order *Architarbi Petrunkevitch 1946 
Order Acari Leach 1817 

Suborder Notostigmata With 1903 
Suborder Holothyroidea Reuter 1909 
Suborder Parasitiformes Reuter 1909 
Suborder Trombidiformes Reuter 1909 
Suborder Sarcoptiformes Reuter 1909 
Suborder Tetrapodili Bremi 1872 
Subclass Stethostomata Petrunkevitch 1948 
Order *Haptopoda Pocock 1911 
Order *Anthracomarti Karsh 1882 
Subclass Soluta Petrunkevitch 1948 

Order Trigonotarbi Petrunkevitch 1948 
Subclass Caulogastra Pocock 1910 

Superorder Latisterna Petrunkevitch 1948 

Order Palpigradi Thorell 1888 

Superorder Camarostomata Petrunkevitch 1948 

Order Schizomida Ptrunkevitch 1913 

Order Telyphonida 

Order Kustarachnae Petrunkevitch 1913 

Superorder Labellata Petrunkevitch 1948 

Order Phrynichida Petrunkevitch 1946 


Order Araneae Lamarck 1818 

Superorder CucuUifera Pocock 1910 

Order Ricinulei Latreille 1802 

Superorder Rostrata Petrunkevitch 1948 

Order Solifugae Sundevall 1833 
Subphylum Mandibulata McLeay 1821 
Superclass Crustacea Pennant 1777 
Class Eucrustacea Kingsley 1894 
Subclass Branchiopoda Lamarck 1801 

Order Anostraca Sars 1867 

Order Notostraca Sars 1867 

Order Conchostraca Sars 1867 

Order Cladocera Latreille 1829 
Suborder Calyptomera Sars 1865 
Suborder Gymnomera Sars 1865 
Subclass Ostracoda Latreille 1802 

Order Myodocopa Sars 1866 

Order Cladocopa Sars 1866 

Order Podocopa Sars 1866 

Order Platycopa Sars 1866 
Subclass Copepoda Latreille 1831 

Order Eucopepoda Claus 1875 
Suborder Calanoida Dana 1852 
Suborder Harpacticoida Sars 1901 
Suborder Cyclopoida Burmeister 1834 
Suborder Notodelphyoida Sars 1903 
Suborder Monstrilloida Sars 1903 
Suborder Caligoida Claus 1885 
Suborder Lernaeopodoida Stebbing 1910 

Order Branchiura Burmeister 1834 
Suborder Arguloida Wilson 1932 
Subclass Cirripedia Burmeister 1834 

Order Thoracica Darwin 1854 

Suborder Turrilepadomorpha Clarke 1896 
Suborder Lepadomorpha Darwin 1852 
Suborder Verrucomorpha Darwin 1854 
Suborder Balanomorpha Darwin 1854 

Order Ascothoracica Lacaze-Duthiers 1883 

Order Apoda Darwin 1854 

Order Rhizocephala F. Miiller 1862 
Subclass Malacostraca Latreille 1802 
Infraclass Leptostraca Claus 1880 

Division Phyllocarida Packard 1879 

Order Nebaliacea Clarke 1882 

Order *Rhinocarina Clarke 1882 

Order *Ceratiocarina Clarke 1882 

Order *Hymenocarina Clarke 1882 

Division *Nahecarida Broili 1928 
Infraclass Eumalacostraca Grobben 1892 

Division Syncarida Packard 1886 

Order Anaspidacea Thomson 1892 

Division Peracarida Caiman 1904 


Order Mysidacea Boas 1883 
Order Thermosbaenacea Monod 1927 
Order Cuniacea Kr0yer 1846 
Order Tanaidacea Hansen 1895 
Order Isopoda Latreille 1817 
Suborder Flabellifera Sars 1882 
Suborder Valvifera Sars 1882 
Suborder Asellota Latreille 1806 
Suborder Phreatoicidea Stebbing 1903 
Suborder Epicaridea Latreille 1831 
Suborder Oniscoidea Sars 1882 
Order Amphipoda Latreille 1816 
Suborder Gammaridea Dana 1852 
Suborder Hyperiidea Dana 1852 
Suborder Caprellidea Dana 1852 
Suborder Ingolfiellidea Hansen 1903 
Division Eucarida Caiman 1904 
Order Euphausiacea Boas 1883 
Order Decapoda Latreille 1802 
Suborder Natantia Boas 1879 
Suborder Reptantia Boas 1879 
Division Hoplocarida Caiman 1904 
Order Stomatopoda Latreille 1817 
Superclass Progoneata Pocock 1893 
Class Pauropoda Lubbock 1866 
Order Pauropoda Lubbock 1866 
Suborder Ectomorpha Bagnall 1935 
Suborder Endomorpha Bagnall 1935 
Class Symphyla Ryder 1880 

Order Symphyla Ryder 1880 
Class Diplopoda Latreille 1802 
Subclass Pselaphognatha Latzel 1884 
Order Ancyrotricha Cook 1895 
Order *Lophotricha Cook 1895 
Subclass Chilognatha Leach 1814 

Superorder Opisthandria Verhoefif 1894 
Order Limacomorpha Pocock 1894 
Order Oniscomorpha Pocock 1887 
Suborder Sphaerotheria Brandt 1833 
Suborder Glomeridia Brandt 1833 
Superorder Proterandria Verhoeff 1894 
Order Colobognatha Brandt 1834 
Order Nematophora Verhoeff 1913 
Suborder Chordeumoidea Latzel 1884 
Suborder Stemmiuloidea Cook 1895 
Suborder Striaroidea Cook 1896 
Suborder Lysiopetaloidea Verhoeff 1900 
Order Proterospermophora Verhoeff 1913 
Suborder Polydesmoidea Attems 1914 
Suborder Strongylosomoidea Attems 1914 
Order Opisthospermophora Verhoeff 1913 
Suborder Juloidea Meinert 1868 


Suborder Spiroboloidea Sylvestri 1896 
Suborder Spirostreptoidea Pocock 1894 
Suborder Cambaloidea BoUnian 1893 
Superclass Opisthogoneata Pocock 1893 
Class Chilopoda Latreille 1802 
Subclass Plcurostigma Pocock 1902 
Superorder Epimorplia Haase 1880 
Order Geophilomorpha Leach 1814 
Order Scolopendroniorpha Newport 1844 
Superorder Anamorpha Haase 1880 
Order Lithobiomorpha Verhoeff 1907 
Order Craterostigma Pocock 1902 
Subclass Notostigma Pocock 1902 

Order Scutigcromorpha Pocock 1895 
Class Insecta Linnaeus 1758 
Subclass Synaptera Packard 1883 
Order Collembola Lubbock 1871 
Order Protura Silvestri 1907 
Order Entotrophi Grassi 1888 
Order Thysanura Latreille 1796 
Subclass Pterygota (Brauer 1885) Lang 1889 
Order Odonata Fabricius 1793 
Order Plectoptera Packard 1886 
Order Orthoptera Latreille 1796 
Order Isoptera Brulle 1832 
Order Dermaptera Leach 1815 
Order Plecoptera Burmeister 1835 
Order Embioptera Hagen 1861 (Shipley 1904) 
Order Corrodentia Burmeister 1839 
Order Zoraptera Silvestri 1913 
Order Mallophaga Nitsch 1818 
Order Anoplura Leach 1815 
Order Hemiptera Linnaeus 1758 

Suborder Heteroptera Latreille 1825 
Suborder Homoptera Latreille 1817 
Order Thysanoptera Haliday 1836 
Order Neuroptera Linnaeus 1758 
Order Mecoptera Packard 1886 
Order Diptera Linnaeus 1758 

Suborder Orthorrhapha Brauer 1863 
Suborder Cyclorrhapha Brauer 1863 
Order Siphonaptera Latreille 1825 
Order Trichoptera Kirby 1813 
Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus 1758 
Suborder Jugatae Comstock 1892 
Suborder Frenatae Comstock 1892 
Suborder Rhopalocera Dumeril 1806 
Order Megaloptera Latreille 1802 
Order Raphidiodea Burmeister 1835 
Order Coleoptera Linnaeus 1758 

Suborder Adephaga Leconte & Horn 1883 
Suborder Polyphaga Emery 1885 


Order Strepsiptera Kirby 1813 
Order Hymenoptera Linnaeus 1758 

Suborder Chalastogastra Konow 1897 

Suborder CHstogastra Konow 1905 
Order *Palaeodictyoptera Goldenberg 1877 
Order *Megasecoptera Brongniart 1885 
Order *Protephemerida Handlirsch 1906 
Order *Protodonata Brongniart 1885 
Order *Protoperlaria Tillyard 1928 
Order *Protelytroptera Tillyard 1931 
Order *Caloneurodea Martynov 1938 
Order *Glosselytrodea Martynov 1938 
Order *Protorthoptera Handlirsch 1906 
Order *Protohemiptera Handlirsch 1906 

The following extinct orders of insects have also been described, but, according to 
F. M. Carpenter, probably do not "deserve recognition" : 
Order *Protoblattoidea Handlirsch 1906 
Order *Hadentomoidea Handlirsch 1906 
Order *Sypharopteroidea Handlirsch 1906 
Order *Mixotermitoidea Handlirsch 1906 
Order *Reculoidea Handlirsch 1906 
Order *Hapalopteroidea Handlirsch 1906 
Order *Protomecoptera Tillyard 1917 
Order *Paratrichoptera Tillyard 1919 
Order *Paramecoptera Tillyard 1919 
Order *Synarmogoidea Handlirsch 1919 
Order *Diaphanopteroidea Handlirsch 1919 
Order *Aeroplanoptera Tillyard 1923 
Order *Protohymenoptera Tillyard 1923 
Order *Protocoleoptera Tillyard 1923 
Order *Miomoptera Martynov 1927 
Order *Pruvostitoptera Zalessky 1929 
Order *Meganisoptera Martynov 1931 
Order *Permodonata Zalessky 1931 
Order *Archodonata Martynov 1932 
Order *Protodiptera Tillyard 1935 
Order *Hemipsocoptera Zalessky 1937 
Order *Cnemidolestoidea Handlirsch 1937 
Order *Paraplecoptera Martynov 1938 
Order *Archaehymenoptera Haupt 1941 
Order *Palaeohymenoptera Haupt 1941 
Order *Protocicadida Haupt 1941 
Order *Protofulgorida Haupt 1941 
Order *Hemiodonata Zalessky 1943 
Order *Anisaxia Forbes 1943 
Order *Perielytrodea Zalessky 1943 
Order *Permodictyoptera Zalessky 1944 
Order *Aphelophlebia Pierce 1945 
Phylum MoUusca Linnaeus 1758 

Class Crepipoda Goldfuss 1820 ( Polyplacophora Gray 1821) 
Order Eoplacophora Pilsbry 1892 


Order Aplacophora von Ihering 1877 
Suborder Chaetodermatina Simroth 1893 
Suborder Neomeniina Simroth 1893 
Order Mesoplacophora Pilsbry 1892 
Order Isoplacophora Cotton & Weeding 1939 
Order Teleoplacophora Pilsbry 1892 
Class Gastropoda Cuvier 1798 
Subclass Prosobranchia Milne-Edwards 1848 

Order Archaeogastropoda Thiele 1925 (Aspidobranchia Pelseneer 1890) 
Order Mesogastropoda Thiele 1925 

Order Neogastropoda Wenz 1938 (Stenoglossa Bouvier 1887) 
Subclass Opisthobranchia Milne-Edwards 1846 
Order Tectibranchia Cuvier 1812 (Pleurocoela Thiele 1931) 
Order Pteropoda Cuvier 1804 

Suborder Thecosomata Blainville 1824 
Suborder Gymnosomata Blainville 1824 
Order Sacoglossa von Ihering 1876 
Order Acoela Thiele 1931 

Suborder Notaspidea Fischer 1883 
Suborder Nudibranchia Cuvier 1817 
Subclass Pulmonata Cuvier 1817 
Order Basommatophora A. Schmidt 1895 
Order Stylommatophora A. Schmidt 1895 
Class Scaphopoda Bronn 1862 
Class Pelecypoda Goldfuss 1820 
Subclass Prionodesmacea Dall 1889 
Order Palaeoconcha Neumayr 1883 
Order Taxodonta Neumayr 1883 
Order Schizodonta Steinmann 1890 
Order Dysodonta Neumayr 1883 
Subclass Anomalodesmacea Dall 1889 
Order Anomalobranchia Iredale 1939 
Order Septibranchia Perrier 1897 
Subclass Teleodesmacea Dall 1889 
Order *Pantodonta Dall 1895 
Order Diogenodonta Dall 1895 
Order Cyclodonta Dall 1895 
Order Teleodonta Dall 1895 
Order Asthenodonta Dall 1895 
Class Cephalopoda Cuvier 1798 
Order Tetrabranchia Owen 1832 
Suborder Nautiloidea Lamarck 1809 
Suborder *Ammonitoidea Haan 1825 
Order Dibranchia Owen 1832 

Suborder Vampyromorpha Robson 1929 
Suborder Decapoda Leach 1817 
Suborder Octopoda Hasselquist 1850 
Phylum Chordata Haeckel 1874 
Subphylum Tunicata Lamarck 1816 (Urochordata) 
Class Ascidiacea Blainville 1825 
Order Stolidobranchiata Lahille 1887 
Order Aspiraculata Seeliger 1909 


Order Phlebobranchiata Lahille 1887 
Order Aplousobranchiata Lahille 1887 
Class Larvacea Herdman 1882 
Class Thaliacea Van der Hoeven 1850 
Subclass Myosomata Garstang 1895 
Order Salpida Jones 1848 
Order DoHolida Keferstein 1862 
Subclass Pyrosomata Garstang 1895 
Order Pyrosomatida Jones 1848 
Division Acrania Hackel 1866 (Cephalochorda) 
Subphylum Leptocardii J. Miiller 1845 
Class Amphioxi J. Miiller 1844 
Order Amphioxi J. Miiller 1844 
Division Craniata Lankester 1877 (Vertebrata) 
Subdivision Anamnia 

Superclass Pisces Linnaeus 1758 
Class Agnatha 

Subclass Cephalaspidomorphi 
Order *Osteostraci Lankester 1868 
Order *Anaspida Traquair 1899 
Order Cyclostomata 

Suborder Myxinoidea (Hyperotriti Miiller 1844) 
Suborder Petromyzontia (Hyperoustii Mulier 1844) 
Subclass *Pteraspidomorphi 
Order *Heterostraci Lankaster 1868 
Order *Coelolepida 
Class *Placodermi McCoy 1848 
Order *Acanthodii Owen 1860 
Order *Arthrodira Cope 1891 
Suborder *Euarthrodira 
Infraorder *Arctolepida 
Infraorder *Brachythoraci 
Suborder *Ptyctodontida Woodward 1891 
Suborder *Phyllolepida 
Order *Macropetalichthyida 
Order *Antiarchi Cope 1885 
Order *Stegoselachii 
Suborder *Stensioellida 
Suborder *Rhenanida 
Order *Palaeospondyloidea Sollas 1903 
Class Chondrichthyes J. Mulier 1846 
Subclass Elasmobranchii Bonaparte 1832 
Order *Cladoselachii Dean 1894 
Order Selachii Cuvier 1829 
Suborder *Hybodontoidea 
Suborder Heterodontoidea 
Suborder Notidanoidea 
Suborder Galeoidea 
Suborder Squaloidea 
Order Batoidea Gunther 1870 
Order *Pleuracanthodii Cope 1889 
Subclass Holocephali Bonaparte 1832 


Order *Bradyodonti Woodward 1892 
Order Chimaerae 
Class Osteichthyes 
Subclass Actinopterygii Cuvier 1828 

Superorder Chondrostei G. Miiller 1846 (Ganoids) 
Order *Palaeoniscoidea Bridge 1879 
Order Polypterini Bonaparte 1837 
Order Acipenseroidei Agassiz 1843 
Order *Subholostei 
Superorder Holostei J. Miiller 1846 (Ganoids) 
Order *Semionotoidea Woodward 1890 
Order *Pycnodontoidea 
Order *Aspidorhynchoidea 
Order Amioidea Huxley 1861 
Order *Pholidophoroidea Woodward 1890 
Superorder Teleostei Owen 1847 
Order Isospondyli Cope 1872 

Suborder Clupeoidea 

Suborder Salmonoidea 

Suborder Opisthoproctoidea 

Suborder Osteoglossoidea 

Suborder Stomiatoidea 

Suborder Gonorhynchoidea 
Order Ostariophysi Bonaparte 1809 

Suborder Cyprinoidea 

Suborder Siluroidea 
Order Apodes Rafinesque 1815 
Order Heteromi Gill 
Order Mesichthyes 

Suborder Haplomi Cope 1872 

Suborder Iniomi Gill 1894 

Suborder Cyprinodontes Agassiz 

Suborder Synentognathi Cope 1872 

Suborder Thoracostei 

Suborder Salmopercae 
Order Acanthopterygii Cuvier 1828 

Suborder Berycoidea 

Suborder Zeoidea 

Suborder Percoidea 

Suborder Carangoidea 

Suborder Scombroidea 

Suborder Trachinoidea 

Suborder Blennioidea 

Suborder Anacanthini Miiller 1846 

Suborder Chaetodontoidea 

Suborder Plectognathi Cuvier 1817 

Suborder Hetrosomata Bonaparte 1846 

Suborder Scorpaenoidea 

Suborder Batrachoidea 

Suborder Pediculati Gill 1865 

Suborder Gobioidea 

Suborder Anabantoidea 


Suborder Mugiloidea 

Suborder Polynemoidea 

Suborder Ammodytoidea 

Suborder Echeneoidea 

Suborder Xenopterygii Gill 1894 

Suborder Allotriognathi Regan 1907 

Suborder Opisthomi Cope 1870 

Suborder Synbranchii 
Subclass Amphibioidei Hubbs 1911 
Order Crossopterygii Huxley 1861 (Ganoids) 

Suborder *Rhipidistia Cope 1887 

Suborder Coelacanthini Agassiz 1843 
Order Dipnoi J. Miiller 1846 
Superclass Tetrapoda Williston 
Class Amphibia Linnaeus 1858 

Superorder *Labyrinthodontia Huxley 1871 
Order *Ichthyostegalia Save-Soderberg 1832 
Order *Rhachitomia Cope 1880 

Suborder *Lexommoidea 

Suborder *Edopsoidea 

Suborder *Eryopsoidea 

Suborder *Neorhachitomi 
Order *Stereospondyli Fraas 1889 
Order ^Embolomeri Cope 1880 
Order *Seymouriamorpha 
Superorder Salientia Laurenti 1768 
Order *Eoanura 
Order *Proanura 
Order Anura 

Suborder Amphicoela Nobel 1931 

Suborder Opisthocoela Nicholls 1916 

Suborder Anomocoela Nicholls 1916 

Suborder Procela Nicholls 1916 

Suborder Diplasiocoela Nicholls 1916 
Subclass *Lepospondyli Zittel 1887 
Order *Aistopoda Miall 1890 
Order *Nectridia Miall 1890 
Order *Microsauria 
Order Urodela (Caudata Oppel 1811) 

Suborder Cryptobranchoidea Dana 1922 

Suborder Amblystomoidea Noble 1931 

Suborder Salamandriodea Cope 1890 

Suborder Proteidea Cope 1866 
Order Apoda Oppel 1911 
Class Reptilia Laurenti 1768 
Subclass Anapsida Osborn 1918 
Order *Cotylosauria Cope 1880 

Suborder *Captorhinomorpha Watson 1917 

Suborder *Diadectomorpha Case 1911 
Order Chelonia Owen 1842 (Testudinata Oppel 1811) 

Suborder *Eunotosauria Watson 1914 

Suborder *Amphichelydia Lydekker 1889 

Suborder Plcurodira Cope 1869 


Suborder Cryptodira Cope 1869 
Subclass *Ichthyopterygia Owen 1860 
Subclass *Synaptosauria Williston 1912 

Order *Protorosauria Seeley 1871 

Order *Sauropterygia Owen 1859 
Suborder *Nothsauria Deecke 1866 
Suborder *Plesiosauria Andrews 1895 
Suborder *Placodontia Meyer 1863 
Subclass Lepidosauria Zittel 1890 

Order *Eosuchia Broom 1814 

Suborder *Younginifonnes Romer 1945 
Suborder *Choristodera Cope 1876 
Suborder *Thalattosauria Merriam 1904 
Suborder *Acrosauria Kuhn 1937 

Order Rliynchocephalia Gunther 1886 

Order Squamata Oppel 1811 

Suborder Lacertilia Cuvier 1834 
Suborder Serpentes Linnaeus 1758 
Subclass *Archosauria Cope 1891 

Order *Thecodontia Owen 1860 
Suborder *Pseudosuchia Cope 1891 
Suborder *Pliytosauria Lydekker 1888 

Order Crocodilia Wagler 1830 

Suborder *Protosuchia Mook 1934 
Suborder *Sebecosuchia Simpson 1937 
Suborder *Mesosuchia Mook 1934 
Suborder Eusuchia Mook 1934 

Order *Pterosauri Kaup 1834 

Suborder *Rhamphorhynchoidea Abel 1919 
Suborder *Pterodactyloidea Seeley 1866 

Order *Saurischia Seeley 1888 
Suborder *Theropoda Marsb 1881 
Suborder *Sauropoda Marsh 1878 

Order *Ornithischia Seeley 1888 

Suborder *Ornithopoda Cope 1869 
Suborder *Ankylosauria Brown 1908 
Suborder *Ceratopsia Zittel 1890 
Subclass *Synapsida Osborn 1903 

Order *Pelycosauria Cope 1878 

Suborder *Ophiacodontia Romer & Price 1940 
Suborder *Sphenacodontia Romer & Price 1940 
Suborder *Edaphosauria Romer & Price 1940 

Order *Therapsida Broom 1905 

Suborder *Dinocephalia Broom 1914 
Suborder *Dicynodontia Owen 1859 
Suborder *Theriodontia Owen 1859 

Order *Ictidosauria Broom 1912 
Class Aves Linnaeus 1758 
Subclass *Archaeornithes Cope 1898 

Order *Archaeopterygiformes Fiirbringer 
Subclass Neornithes Reynolds 1897 

Superorder *Odontognathae Marsh 1873 

Order *Hesperornithiformes Marsh 1872 


Order *Ichthyornithiformes Marsh 1873 
Superorder Palaeognathae Pycraft 1910 
Order *Caenagnathiformes 
Order Struthioniformes Haeckel 1866 
Order Rheiformes Newton 1884 
Order Casuariiformes Sclater 1880 
Order *Dinornithifornies Stejneger 1884 
Order *Aepyornithiformes Newton 1884 
Order Apterygiformes Wetmore & Miller 1936 
Order Tinamiformes Gray 1840 
Superorder Impennes Illiger 1811 
Order Sphenisciformes Viellot 1818 
Superorder Neognathae Pycraft 1896 
Order Gaviiformes Brandt 1839 
Order Colymbifornies Bonaparte 1852 
Order Procellariiformes Wagner 1843 
Order Pelecaniformes Stejneger 1885 
Suborder Phaethontes Gray 1840 
Suborder Pelecani Owen 1856 
Suborder Fregatae Vigors 1830 
Suborder Odontopteryges Lydekker 1892 
Order Ciconiiformes Owen 1832 
Suborder Ardeinae Wagler 1830 
Suborder Balaenicipites Gould 1851 
Suborder Ciconiae Bonaparte 1834 
Suborder Phoenicopteri Bonaparte 1831 
Order Anseriformes Swainson 1837 
Suborder Anhimae Brisson 1760 
Suborder Anseres Linnaeus 1735 
Order Falconiformes Naumann 1822 
Suborder Cathartae Lafresnaye 1829 
Suborder Falcones Naumann 1822 
Order Galliformes Latreille 1825 
Suborder Galli Dumeril 1806 
Suborder Opisthocomi Gray 1840 
Order Gruiformes Stejneger 1885 
Suborder Mesoenatides Lowe 1924 
Suborder Turnices Gray 1840 
Suborder Grues Owen 1856 
Suborder Heliornithes Gray 1840 
Suborder Rhynocheti Gould 1837 
Suborder Eurypygae Illiger 1811 
Suborder *Phororhaci Lydekker 1893 
Suborder Cariamae Brisson 1760 
Suborder Otides Wagler 1830 
Order *Diatrymiformes Cope 1877 
Order Charadriiformes Fiirbinger 1888 
Suborder Charadrii Huxley 1867 
Suborder Lari Bonaparte 1857 
Suborder Alcae Stejneger 1885 
Order Columbiformes Bonaparte 1853 
Suborder Pterocletes Knowlton 1909 
Suborder Columbae Bonaparte 1857 


Order Psittaciformes Illiger 1811 
Order Cuculiformes Stejneger 1884 
Suborder Musophagi Sharpe 1891 
Suborder Cuculi A. O. U. 1886 
Order Strigiformes Wagler 1830 
Order Caprimulgiformes Stejneger 1885 
Suborder Steatornithes Bonaparte 1850 
Suborder Caprimulgi Bonaparte 1840 
Order Apodiformes Lucas 1889 
Suborder Apodi Peters 1940 
Suborder Trochili Lesson 1931 
Order Coliiformes Swainson 1837 
Order Trogoniformes Swainson 1831 
Order Coraciiformes Seebohm 1880 
Suborder Alcedines Bonaparte 1831 
Suborder Meropes Bonaparte 1831 
Suborder Coracii Gray 1845 
Suborder Bucerotes 
Order Piciformes Sharpe 1891 

Suborder Galbulae Fiirbinger 1888 
Suborder Pici Wagler 1830 
Order Passeriformes Nitzsch 1829 
Suborder Eurylaimi Gadow 1893 
Suborder Tyranni Swainson 1837 
Suborder Menurae Stejneger 1885 
Suborder Passeres Linnaeus 1758 
Class Mammalia Linnaeus 1758 
Subclass Prototheria Gill 1872 

Order Monotremata Bonaparte 1838 
Subclass *Allotheria Marsh 1880 
Order *Multituberculata Cope 1884 
Order *Triconodonta Osborn 1888 
Subclass Theria Parker & Haswell 1897 
Infraclass *Pantotheria Simpson 1929 
Order *Pantotheria Marsh 1880 
Order *Symmetrodonta Simpson 1925 
Infraclass Metatheria Huxley 1880 

Order Marsupialia Illiger 1811 
Infraclass Eutheria Gill 1872 
Cohort Unguiculata Linnaeus 1766 
Order Insectivora Bowdich 1821 
Order Dermoptera Illiger 1811 
Order Chiroptera Blumenbach 1779 
Suborder Megachiroptera Dobson 1875 
Suborder Microchiroptera Dobson 1875 
Order Primates Linnaeus 1758 
Suborder Prosimii Illiger 1811 
Suborder Anthropoidea Mivart 1864 
Order *Tillodontia Marsh 1875 
Order *Taeniodontia Cope 1876 
Order Edentata Cuvier 1798 

Suborder *Palaeanodonta Matthew 1918 
Suborder Xenarthra Cope 1889 


Order Pholidota Weber 1904 
Cohort Glires Linnaeus 1758 

Order Lagomorpha Brandt 1855 

Order Rodentia Bowdich 1821 

Suborder Sciuromorpha Brandt 1855 
Suborder Myomorpha Brandt 1855 
Suborder Hystricomorpha Brandt 1855 
Cohort Mutica Linnaeus 1766 

Order Cetacea Brisson 1762 

Suborder *Archaeoceti Fowler 1883 
Suborder Odontoceti Fowler 1867 
Suborder Mysticeti Fowler 1864 
Cohort Ferungulata Simpson 1945 

Superorder Ferae Linnaeus 1758 

Order Carnivora Bowdich 1821 
Suborder *Creodonta Cope 1875 
Suborder Fissipeda Blumenbach 1791 
Suborder Pinnipedia Illiger 1811 

Superorder *Protungulata Weber 1904 

Order *Condylarthra Cope 1881 

Order *Litopterna Ameghino 1889 

Order *Notoungulata Roth 1903 

Suborder *Notioprogonia Simpson 1934 
Suborder *Toxodonta Scott 1904 
Suborder *Typotheria Zittel 1892 
Suborder *Hegetotheria Simpson 1945 

Order *Astrapotheria Lydekker 1894 

Suborder *Trigonostylopoidea Simpson 1934 
Suborder *Astrapotherioidea Ameghino 1894 

Order Tubulidentata Huxley 1872 

Superorder Paenungulata Simpson 1945 

Order *Pantodonta Cope 1873 

Order *Dinocerata Marsh 1873 

Order *Pyrotheria Ameghino 1895 

Order Proboscidea Illiger 1811 

Suborder *Moeritherioidea Osborn 1921 
Suborder Elephantoidea Osborn 1921 
Suborder *D€inotherioidea Osborn 1921 
Suborder *Barytherioidea Simpson 1945 

Order *Embrithopoda Andrews 1906 

Order Hyracoidea Huxley 1869 

Order Sirenia Illiger 1811 

Suborder Trichechiformes Hay 1923 
Suborder *Desniostyliformes Hay 1923 

Superorder Mesaxonia Marsh 1884 

Order Perissodactyla Owen 1848 
Suborder Hippomorpha Wood 1937 
Suborder Ceratomorpha Wood 1937 

Superorder Paraxonia Marsh 1884 

Order Artiodactyla Owen 1848 
Suborder Suiformes Jaeckel 1911 
Suborder Tylopoda Illiger 1811 
Suborder Ruminantia Scopoli 1777 


Price 25c 

Zoology Department 

Duke University 

Durham, N. C, U. S. A.